• Infection by certain microbes in honey bees can be detected using light microscopy.

    Immunity to Bacterial Infections in Honey Bees

    Honey bees constantly struggle against various bacterial and fungal species. For example, Nosema species are very detrimental parasitic fungi that infect honey bees and can cause great harm to an entire colony in a very short amount of time. A hive that is heavily infected with nosema will often collapse, leading to robbing behavior by other colonies and a…

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